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Critical Thinking As Problem Solving Dave Atlas Department of Education Montana State University Critical thinking and the processes involved therein are essential elements of university curriculum and subsequent student development.
Nowhere is it more apparent than at this level of academia, where students acquire the skills of testing hypotheses, collecting data, reporting, generalizing conclusions, and communicating results that will be important intellectual tools in their university career and subsequently, as lifelong learners.
Moreover, combining critical thinking and analysis to the area of cooperative learning and problem solving will not only enhance process acquisition, but increase relevancy and the affective domain to prepare students for an increasingly interdependent and connected world.
Lipman defines critical thinking as skillful, responsible thinking that facilitates good judgment because it relies upon criteria, is self-correcting, and is sensitive to context.
He also argues that we as teachers must begin with the raw subject matter of communication and inquiry and cultivate all the skills that the mastery in such processes entails It has been my experience that students benefit greatly from the afforded opportunity of learning through their own discoveries.
Specifically, I have observed increased intellectual potency, intrinsic rewards and motivation, useful learning techniques, and increased basic skills.
Critical thinking occurs when students construct meaning by interpreting, analyzing, and manipulating information in response to a problem or question that requires more than a direct, one-right-answer application of previously learned knowledge Adams, This can be characterized by specific core thinking skills, which can be developed in the classroom through instruction and guided practice.
The list of applicable skills includes, but is not limited to: It is my belief that we as instructors should emphasize the process used to attain knowledge more than the knowledge itself.
It is the process of learning itself that is most applicable, and relevant to students. By keying on the process of learning, students activate prior schema that includes related facts, concepts, and generalizations, and I have observed students integrate new subject matter into meaningful knowledge structures.
From a relevancy standpoint, this process of critical thinking from a problem-oriented vantage is both a way to better organize and interrelate existing knowledge, as well as acquire more information.
With this in mind, I have taught this process to potential high school teachers by using the example of Christopher Columbus and how his endeavors are portrayed in history textbooks. We begin by examining a text selection outlining his life and legacy.
I then have students discriminate between what is definitive fact very little, indeedand that which is not known to be historically factual. Then, the process is initiated to generalize as to the mythical notion of Columbus, and as to what purpose his story has served throughout history.
Another text-based critical thinking activity I have used is to have students pick out a list of names from a selected chapter.
Students are then asked to group and categorize by some label, invariably by gender- with a very high proportion of men in the list. The students then generate questions, which generally include the following: Why are men included more than women in textbooks?
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What makes a person historically important? What women should have been included?Critical Thinking reviews by homeschoolers for homeschoolers. Pros and cons of Critical Thinking, what worked and what didn't for each age and learning style, and more.
Goals The goals of the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking Instruction are as follows: To articulate, preserve, and foster high standards of research, scholarship, and instruction in critical thinking. Full Curriculum Solutions Complete Grade Level Solutions in Math, Language Arts, Science and Reasoning for less than $43 each!
We design critical thinking into ALL of our full curriculum products. The members of the Council (some plus educators) are committed to high standards of excellence in critical thinking instruction across the curriculum at all levels of education.
They are, therefore, concerned with the proliferation of poorly conceived "thinking skills" programs with their simplistic — often slick — approaches to both.
Critical Thinking as Defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking, A statement by Michael Scriven & Richard Paul, presented at the 8th Annual International Conference on Critical Thinking and Education Reform, Summer "Critical thinking is thinking that assesses itself" (Center for Critical Thinking, b).
"Critical thinking is the ability to think about one's thinking in such a way as 1.
To recognize its strengths and weaknesses and, as a result, 2.