Notes Abstract This essay surveys the development and current state of electronic literature, from the popularity of hypertext fiction in the 's to the present, focusing primarily on hypertext fiction, network fiction, interactive fiction, locative narratives, installation pieces, "codework," generative art and the Flash poem. It also discusses the central critical issues raised by electronic literature, pointing out that there is significant overlap with the print tradition. At the same time, the essay argues that the practices, texts, procedures, and processual nature of electronic literature require new critical models and new ways of playing and interpreting the works.
His greatest works include: Active in Britain as a portraitist, landscape artist, symbolist, and member of the Aesthetic movement, he is best known for his 'arrangements', 'harmonies' and 'nocturnes'.
Later American Impressionist painters included: Alden Weir who excelled at landscape, still lifes and flower paintings; Theodore Robinsona close friend of Claude Monet; the Cincinnati artist John H Twachtman ; Thomas Dewing the interior and landscape painter, and follower of Aestheticism; and John Singer Sargent Also, Robert Henri and William James Glackensboth members of The Eight, produced a number of excellent Impressionist-style canvases.
As the American art world expanded during the 19th century, so did its organizations. The American Academy of Fine Arts was founded as early as and ran until Thereafter it was replaced by the National Academy of Design originally called the Society for the Improvement of Drawing which was set up in in New York.
The National Academy was the most active fine arts association in America until the 20th century when its conservative nature gradually caused it Distinctively visual essay become more of a historical institution. In addition, America commemorated much of its 19th century history in memorial sculptures, such as those by Daniel Chester French Greek Revival came first, led largely by Jefferson, Latrobe and Bulfinch.
Neo-Gothic architectural design was exemplified by the work of Richard Upjohn and James Renwickwhile Romanesque-style designs were pursued by Henry Hobson Richardson Meantime, the first real skyscrapers were being designed by the Chicago School of architecture c.
Development of Modern Art in America From this point onwards, Distinctively visual essay art - and, more importantly, European artists - begin to have a much greater impact on America.
This is the result of two main factors. The growth of American cities was, incidentally, made them ideal customers for - and developers of - new styles of European architecture like Art Nouveau flourished and Art Deco s, s.
One effect of this increased European influence was the gradual emergence of a school of abstract art: The famous avant-garde Armory Show officially entitled the International Exhibition of Modern Art - seen by more than a quarter of a million visitors in New York, Chicago and Boston - marked a turning point in public interest in modern art.
Exhibits featured the greatest modern paintings, including works by modernist American as well as European artists. Organized by Arthur B DaviesPresident of the Association of American Painters and Sculptors - a group initiated by Robert Henri - the show attracted several important patrons and collectors, including: Other important exhibitions dating from this period include the Carnegie International exhibition of contemporary art held since at the Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute Pittsburgh; and of course The Whitney Biennial, an invitational event held since Several famous American art museums, endowed by US industrialist-philanthropists, date from around the turn of the century.
An important influence on the development of American art during the early 20th century was the American photographer, editor, and art dealer Alfred Stieglitzlater the husband of artist Georgia O'Keeffe, who - with the help of his close colleague Edward Steichen - devoted much of his energy to promoting fine art photography as well as modernist painting and sculpture in the New York area.
The urban scene also attracted the attention of several mini-art movements. Second generation Ashcan painters included George Wesley Bellows and Edward Hopper who produced numerous realist genre works as well as landscapes - see, for instance, House by the RailroadMuseum of Modern Art and Lighthouse at Two LightsMetropolitan Museum and his masterpiece NighthawksArt Institute of Chicago.
Another influence on modern painting in America was Precisionism or Cubist Realism, swhose focus was modern industry and urban landscapes, characterized by the realistic portrayal of objects but in a way that also highlighted their geometric form.
It was exemplified in works by Charles Demuth and Charles Sheelerwhile the urban pictures of Georgia O'Keeffe are also associated with the Precisionist style.
Growth of Indigenous Modern Art in America c.
Cubism, Expressionism, Dada and Surrealism were the most important of these movements, and attracted a number of indigenous American artists, including: Meanwhile, the plain vanilla traditionalist school was represented by Grandma Mosesnoted for her idyllic rural scenes; the sentimental illustrator and portraitist Norman Rockwell ; and Andrew Wyeth b.
Mention must also be made of the growth in fine art photography, and the emergence of landscape photographers like Ansel AdamsImogen Cunningham, and Edward Weston For details of other influential 20th century camera artists from America, like Robert Mapplethorpeand Cindy Sherman b.
The Surrealist artists were very influential with their idea of unconscious 'automatic painting' which was taken up by Jackson Pollock and others.
The exchange of ideas was helped in New York by a growing infrastructure of venues promoting modern art, including: Education also played a part: Lastly, numerous American patrons and collectors - notably Peggy Guggenheim - were active and creative conduits.IN WHICH NOVELIST David Foster Wallace VISITS THE SET OF DAVID LYNCH'S NEW MOVIE AND FINDS THE DIRECTOR BOTH grandly admirable AND sort of nuts.
Colophon · The template for the Web edition of this document was marked up by Nick Montfort in valid XHTML with a valid CSS2 style sheet.
It is screen-friendly and printer-friendly; a style sheet for printer output is provided which browsers should use automatically when users print the document. Qing Dynasty () Wang Shimin () Born Jiangsu province.
Because he himself had a large collection of old masters, Wang Shimin was the best placed of the Orthodox masters to put the theories of Dong Qichang into practice.
Immanuel Kant (–) is the central figure in modern philosophy. He synthesized early modern rationalism and empiricism, set the terms for much of nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy, and continues to exercise a significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields.
Distinctively Visual Essay – Shoe Horn Sonata & The Send Off In John Misto’s play ‘The Shoe-Horn Sonata’ () and the poem ‘The Send-Off’ written by Wilfred Owen distinctively visual techniques are used to explore past experiences of war and individuals and society’s perceptions.
Noted for his portraits of George Washington, Stuart is seen as the greatest 18th century American portrait painter, and the creator of a distinctively American style of art. Other noted American painters of the 18th century include: the portraitist Ralph Earl () and the portrait/history.