PDF Abstract Economists, demographers and other social scientists have long debated the relationship between demographic change and economic outcomes. In recent years, general agreement has emerged to the effect that improving economic conditions for individuals generally lead to lower birth rates. But, there is much less agreement about the proposition that lower birth rates contribute to economic development and help individuals and families to escape from poverty.
One reason for increased workforce participation is an unprecedented reduction in fertility in developing countries as diverse as Bangladesh, Colombia, and the Islamic Republic of Iran, along with improvements in female education.
Yet women everywhere tend to earn less than men World Bank, —especially Chapter 5. The reasons are varied.
Women are more likely than men to work as unpaid family laborers or in the informal sector. Women farmers cultivate smaller plots and less profitable crops than male farmers. And women entrepreneurs operate smaller businesses in less lucrative sectors.
As for rights and voice, almost every country in the world has now ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.
Yet, in many countries, women especially poor women have less say than men when it comes to decisions and resources in their households. Women are also much more likely to suffer domestic violence—in developing and rich countries.
And in all countries, rich and poor alike, fewer women participate in formal politics, especially at higher levels.
Gender equality and development Gender equality is important in its own right. Development is a process of expanding freedoms equally for all people—male and female Sen, Closing the gap in well-being between males and females is as much a part of development as is reducing income poverty.
Greater gender equality also enhances economic efficiency and improves other development outcomes. It does so in three main ways: For example, if women farmers have the same access as men to productive resources such as land and fertilizers, agricultural output in developing countries could increase by as much as 2.
Evidence from countries as varied as Brazil, China, India, South Africa, and the United Kingdom shows that when women control more household income—either through their own earnings or through cash transfers—children benefit as a result of more spending on food and education World Bank, In India, giving power to women at the local level led to greater provision of public goods, such as water and sanitation, which mattered more to women Beaman and others, Gearing up development How gender equality evolves as development proceeds can best be understood through the responses of households to the functioning and structure of markets and institutions—both formal such as laws, regulations, and delivery of government services and informal such as gender roles, norms, and social networks.
Markets and institutions help determine the incentives, preferences, and constraints faced by different individuals in a household, as well as their voice and bargaining power.
In this way, household decision making, markets, and formal and informal institutions interact to determine gender-related outcomes. This framework also helps show how economic growth higher incomes influences gender outcomes by affecting how markets and institutions work and how households make decisions.
This framework helps demonstrate why the gender gap in education enrollment has closed so quickly. In this case, income growth by loosening budget constraints on households and the public treasurymarkets by opening new employment opportunities for womenand formal institutions by expanding schools and lowering costs have come together to influence household decisions in favor of educating girls and young women across a range of countries.
The framework also helps explain why poor women still face sizable gender gaps, especially those who experience not only poverty but also other forms of exclusion, such as living in a remote area, being a member of an ethnic minority, or suffering from a disability.
In India and Pakistan, for instance, while there is no difference between the number of boys and girls enrolled in education for the richest fifth of the population, there is a gap of almost five years for the poorest fifth.
The illiteracy rate among indigenous women in Guatemala is twice that among nonindigenous women and 20 percentage points higher than for indigenous men.
Market signals, improved service delivery institutions, and higher incomes, which have generally favored the education of girls and young women, fail to reach these severely disadvantaged populations. Policy implications To bring about gender equality, policymakers need to focus their actions on five clear priorities: To reduce the excess mortality of girls and women, it is necessary to focus on the underlying causes at each age.
Improving health care delivery to expectant mothers, as Sri Lanka did early in its development process and Turkey has done more recently, is critical.
To counter sex-selective abortions that lead to fewer female births, most notably in China and northern India, the societal value of girls must be enhanced, as Korea has done.
To shrink education gaps in countries where they persist, barriers to access because of poverty, ethnicity, or geography must come down.
For example, where distance is the key problem as in rural areas of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistanmore schools in remote areas can reduce the gender gap.
When customized solutions are hard to implement or too costly, demand-side interventions, such as cash transfers conditioned on school attendance, can help get girls from poor families to school.
To limit gender inequality over time, reaching adolescents and young adults is key.The available literature documenting socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition focuses mainly on individual countries or regions.
9 – 14 At a more global level, Wagstaff and Watanabe 15 provided evidence on socioeconomic inequality in malnutrition across 20 developing countries. Countries that incorporated strong and effective population policies within the broader context of social and economic development policies were able to cash in very profitably on the demographic bonus.
For instance, if women were to participate in the labor force to the same extent as men, national income could increase by 5 percent in the U.S., 9 percent in Japan, and 27 percent in India.
 Equal pay and better economic opportunities for women boost economic growth—creating a bigger pie for everyone to share, women and men alike.
Socio-Economic Inequality Factors Towards Health Michaela Branker b SWLF Serena Kataoka: Final Essay April 6, Socioeconomics, as defined by The American Psychological Association, “is commonly conceptualized as the social standing or class of an individual or group. But women's development and empowerment through education, change in their economic, social and political status will ensure sustainable development that we are sure off.
The scope of this paper is limited to the case study of Punjab. Mar 14, · One reason and NOT the only reason is that women have been held down in many ways for so long that when you elevate women, which is more than half of the population, the population gains in economic srmvision.com: Resolved.