Nok sculpture, terracotta The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between BC and ADproducing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in
What are the underlying reasons for these problems? The political risk problems in Nigeria stemmed from one of the main critical issues related to the social imbalance, inequality and discriminations of the minorities among the huge diversity of ethnic backgrounds in Nigeria.
The severe intense ethnic conflict situation and circumstances in Nigeria was as Royal dutch shell in nigeria case study that it was highly challenging and extremely difficult to unite different ethnic and linguistic groups in the country.
As Shell announced the mega oil and gas investment in Ogoniland, exploitation of the environment devastated by pollution caused by Shell's oil spills and gas flaring in the region subsequently led to extensive water pollution, acid rain, significant greenhouse gas emission and respiratory problems.
This caused anger and protest by the Ogonis that resulted in violence and political unrest in the community. It was obvious that the Ogonis, who depended on farming and fishing, were robbed of their livelihood through the operations of Shell.
Shell maintained close relationship with the military government, managed by Sir Phillip Watts for the political benefits in the quest to exploit the riches from the land Centre for Constitutional Rights. Much of the instability in Nigeria stemmed from the economic effects of the severe civil wars, corruption and brutal dictatorship by military governments and economic exploitation.
Shell increased violence in the Niger Delta through their reliance on Nigerian security forces, corruption by company's employees and environmental damage. Environmental activist Kenule Saro-Wiwa who formed the Movement for the Survival of People, MOSOP, had extensively campaigned for political self determination of the great share of the oil revenue and the compensation on the losses from Shell activity as well as demanded restoration on the environmental in Ogoniland.
Shell faced intense international pressure after the execution of Kenule Saro-Wiwa and eight others protest members, as well as torture, forced exile, detention, shooting and attacks on other peaceful protestors during the demonstration in Nigeria Centre for Constitutional Rights.
This resulted in international boycotts, e.
In addition, Shell's failure to properly maintain and upgrade its oil pipelines and other infrastructure, empty promises about clean-ups, corporate reform efforts, human rights violation as well as double standards approach in rich and poor countries like non compliance to environmental impact assessment, demolition of dwellers places without provision to re-house tens of thousands of inhabitants are part of the reasons why Shell and Shell employees faced the high violence and crime rate such as kidnapping of employee and family members, hijacking of the expensive equipment for ransom, sabotage of the pipeline and work-stopping occupation of facility by the protesters Friends of the Earth, Question 2 Given the high political risk in Nigeria, why doesn't Shell go somewhere else?
Nigeria Delta is the 9th largest source of natural gas in the world and has estimated oil reserve of Shell began investing at Nigeria inand is the largest oil operation in Nigeria, producing half of the 2.
Over USD12 billion in oil is pumped out every year, and most of it goes to the U. S Damu and Bacon, Nigeria offers unlimited supply of crude oil unlike other oil producing countries, such as Saudi Arabia and other OPEC members, who impose a limit to daily supply of crude oil in the market.
The unlimited supplies in Nigeria auger well for Shell's future global supplies and reserves of petroleum and enables Shell to maintain consistent returns on investment in Nigeria. Oil companies pay countless sums of bribes to local governments to avoid action against them Essential Action.
It is therefore in the interest of Nigerian military regime to silence those who want to raise awareness of Shell's total disregard for people, exploitation of the land and destruction of the environment. On November 10,they were executed after a trial that many heads of states worldwide condemned, for the stunning lack of evidence of accusations against them leading to their hasty execution Essential Action.
However, till today, Shell remains free of responsibility for these atrocities. There is an extremely low cost of petroleum extraction offered by the Nigerian government outweighs the political risks involves in this industry.
The government does not put pressure to oil company to develop the country's infrastructure and social services. The environmental pollution levels in Nigeria are times higher than allowed in Europe Human Rights Watch, The government lobby cost is much lower than the cost for environmental cleaning measures.
For example, associated gas, which is gas mixed up with the crude oil extracted from the earth's crust is flared off instead of being re-injected into the subsoil Environmental Rights Action, June Flaring of associated gas has been prohibited since except with Ministerial consent.Working with Shell's country manager for Nigeria, the company's Committee of Managing Directors must decide how to respond to the Nigerian government's decision to impose the death sentence on Ken Saro-Wiwa and eight other leaders of a movement for the rights of the Ogoni (one of .
royal dutch shell – case study paper 1 The company is a major global player in the energy sector. Indeed in the development of the ‘global company’, the oil and gas sector by virtue of the need to search for reserves worldwide, has probably led the way.
Brent Spar, or Brent E, was a North Sea oil storage and tanker loading buoy in the Brent oilfield, operated by Shell srmvision.com the completion of a pipeline connection to the oil terminal at Sullom Voe in Shetland, the storage facility had continued in use, but by , was considered to be of no further srmvision.com Spar became an issue of public concern in , when the British government.
Although oil from Ogoniland has provided approximately $30 billion to the economy of Nigeria 1, the people of Ogoni see little to nothing from their contribution to Shell's srmvision.coml Nnadozie, writing of the contributions of oil to the national economy of Nigeria, observed "Oil is a curse which means only poverty, hunger, disease and exploitation" for those living in oil producing. Isla Refinery keep up to date for the latest developments around the refinery, please visit the Circus Why, Where, When The Isla refinery was started by the Curaçaosche Petroleum Industrie Maatschappij CPIM, a Shell daughter, in , to process oil from the Venezuelan Lake of Maracaïbo. At the same time, Standard Oil set up the Aruba Lago refinery. Union Forces of the American Civil War by Phillip Katcher Arms and Armour publication. Card covers, 46 pages, copious black and white images.
In , Shell and Royal Dutch merged together to become The Royal Dutch Shell Group. Shell Petroleum Inc. is a holding company that is 60 percent owned by Royal Dutch Petroleum Company and 40 percent owned by The Shell Transport and Trading Company.
Maersk Line is the world’s largest container shipping company, known for reliable, flexible and eco-efficient services. We operate container vessels and . Shell Global Solutions provides technical services and licensed technologies. What sets us apart from some other licensors and consultants is the knowledge we have gained from our corporate heritage as the owner and operator of large, complex industrial process plants.