Vitellius 69 The Roman Empire "officially" begins by tradition in 27 BC when Octavian receives the title "Augustus" -- which then becomes the name by which we know him.
In order to understand the milieu in which Islamic medicine was born, one has to understand the salient events in the advent of Islam and a few events just preceding the Islamic era. Arabia which was a large area covered mostly by an arid desert that was roamed by nomadic tribes of Bedouins.
Certain communities had been established where the trade routes intersected and water was available. Mecca was along the Yaman- Damascus trade route. It was considered a holy city and a sanctuary.
The Kaaba or house of worship was replete with idols of different gods each representing a tribe or community. These Bedouins had their own tribal moral or ethical codes of conduct and idolatry was in practice. Blood feuds were common and attacking caravans along trade routes was a way of life.
Sacrifices were often offered to appease the gods and burying of live female children was common practice. Family feuds were common and settling scores in order to uphold tribal honor led to frequent bloody encounters in which many people were killed.
Islam was not only to bring dramatic changes in the religious practices of these warring nomadic tribes but also unite them into an unprecedented social and cultural nation that very quickly was to develop into a strong political entity, with its own system of administration, justice, and military power, all under one leadership.
Within one hundred years of coming into existence, the Islamic empire had spread from Spain in the west, to China in the east, and encompassed in its midst, the whole of northern Africa ,Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Transjordan ,Central Asia and parts of western India.
Later it was to be even carried further by the Muslim merchants to the shores of the far east including the Malaysian peninsula, the islands of the East Indies and Indonesia. The first four Caliphs were elected democratically but the later the Caliphate became dynastic. Later still a western Caliphate was established in Spain.
In later history the Islamic Nation was to break up into various kingdoms, as the provincial rulers become more autonomous and independent of the center and was ultimately to be overrun by the Sejluk Turks who were the forerunners of the Ottoman empire.
The early era of Islamic Medicine and the School of medicine at Jundishapur: At this time it already had a well established Hospital and Medical school.
Many Syrians took refuge in the city when Antioch was captured by Shapur I. The Greek influence was already predominant in Jundishapur when the closing of the Athenian school in AD by order of the Byzantine emperor Justinian drove many learned Greek physicians to this town.
A University with a medical school and a hospital were established by Khusraw Anushirwan the wise AD where the Greeco-Syriac medicine blossomed.
Thus at the time of the Islamic invasion the school of Jundishapur was well established and had become renowned as a medical center of Greek, Syriac and Indian learning.
This knowledge had intermingled to create a highly acclaimed and state of the art Medical school and hospital. After the advent of Islamic rule the University continued to thrive.
In fact the first recorded Muslim Physician Harith bin Kalada, who was a contemporary of the Prophet acquired his medical knowledge at medical school and hospital at Jundishapur. This hospital and Medical Center was to become the model on which all later Islamic Medical Scools and Hospitals were to be built.
These were later to be translated into Arabic casting an everlasting imprint onto all the future of Islamic Medicine. It was during the Abbasid Caliphate that Caliph al-Mansur the founder of the city of Baghdad invited the then head of the Jundishapur School to treat him.Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet.
The rivalry between the Turkic clans and Persian nobles was a major problem in the Safavid kingdom. As V. Minorsky put it, friction between these two groups was inevitable, because the Turcomans "were no party to the national Persian tradition".
Hungary is a state in central srmvision.com history under this name dates to the early Middle Ages, when the Pannonian Basin was colonized by the Magyars, a seminomadic people from what is now central-northern srmvision.com history of the area before this period, see Pannonian basin before Hungary.
Babylon and the cities and tribes of Southern Mesopotamia. South of the Assyrian heartland lies Babylonia. As the birthplace of Mesopotamia's common cuneiform culture, the region could boast cultural traditions stretching back for millennia.
The Abbasid Caliphate (/ ə ˈ b æ s ɪ d / or / ˈ æ b ə s ɪ d / Arabic: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة , al-Khilāfatu al-ʿAbbāsiyyah) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. chronicles,” and in fact, the ethno-historical considerations of a continuing cultural tradition.
He contrasts this approach to a more abstracted model of conversion presented by Insoll.