If you know anything about Peat, know that he has a vendetta against polyunsaturated fat — which could very well be his greatest scientific contribution because of the numerous negative actions that excessive polyunsaturated fat intake exerts on human tissues, organs, and glands like the wondrous thyroid. Of course, eating carbohydrates does not raise blood sugar significantly in a healthy person — and all the focus should be on restoring insulin sensitivity and not avoiding glucose. In fact, one person contacted me last week to share with me a dramatic lowering of blood glucose levels and complete conquering of pretty severe insulin resistance after quadrupling carbohydrate intake — a result of eating a high-starch, low polyunsaturated fat diet.
Animal Cell Plant Cell In plant cells, if a plant cell is placed in distilled water, water molecules will move from the distilled water to the cell, the cell swells up and becomes turgid but it will never burst because plant cells are surrounded by cell walls, which are made of cellulose and is elastic, it will stretch but never break, the cell becomes turgid.
If we place a plant cell in a concentrated salt solution whith low water potential, water will move from the cell to the solution causing the cell to become plasmolysed as in the diagram. Active transport occurs in cells, it is basically the movement of molecules or ions from a region of their low concentration to a region of their high concentration against the concentration gradient using energy of respiration.
Active transport occurs in living, active cells only because it needs energy, these cells usually have a structure called mitochondria which respires producing energy to be used in active transport. Active transport happens in roots to absorb mineral salts from the soil.
It also occurs in the digestive system of mammals. Molecules are taken into the cell by protein carriers within the cell membrane. Enzymes Enzymes are proteins that function as a biological catalyst. They are proteins in nature. Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 is a substance that decomposes into Water H2O and Oxygen O2 if it is left in room temperature for a period of time.
This reaction could a long time, but it could be sped up if we add a catalyst. Each catalyst can catalyse a specific substance and nothing but it. The catalyst for Hydrogen peroxide is called Manganese4 oxide.
If it is added we will get water and oxygen gas in a very short time, and the manganese4 oxide could be obtained again as it was, it remains unchanged.
How Do Enzymes Work? Enzymes work the same way as catalysts do, they can work with only one substrate and they can be used more than once. Enzymes have a structure that is called active site. Only one substance can fit into the active site to be digested, and it is the only substrate that this particular enzyme works with.
The figure above shows the function of enzymes: The substrate enters the active site of the enzyme. The reaction takes place. The substrate exits the enzyme as two simpler products. You can also think of the way enzymes work as a key and a lock, the key is the substrate and the lock is the enzyme.
The key should be exactly the right shape to fit in the lock, so does the substrate to fit in the active site of the enzyme. The key could only open only one lock, and the lock could be unlocked by only that key.
Enzymes are two types, Builders and Breakers. Builder enzymes do the opposite of breaker enzymes. Breakers break large molecules into smaller simpler ones, builders combine smaller ones to make large molecules.
Breaker enzymes are used in the digestive system to break down large insoluble molecules into simpler soluble ones to be used by the body. They are also present in cells that respire to break down sugars and oxygen into carbon dioxide, water and energy.
Builder enzymes are present in plants to be used in photosynthesis, the opposite of respiration, in photosynthesis, oxygen and water are combined together to form carbon dioxide and sugars.
Naming enzymes depends on the substrate they work on. The sucrase enzyme works on sucrose. The maltase enzyme works on maltose. Enzymes are reusable and are only affected by the change in temperature and pH.
Each enzyme has an optimum temperature, this is the temperature at which the enzyme is most active, below this temperature the activity of the enzyme decreases until it becomes inactive at low temperatures, above this optimum temperature the enzyme becomes denatured and can no longer work.
As the temperature increases, the enzyme and substrate gain more kinetic energy and move faster colliding more, the enzyme becomes more active and the reaction takes place. The enzymes become denatured when the shape of their active site changes as a result of high temperature, thus the substrate cannot fit into the active site and the enzyme is useless.
Each enzyme has its own optimum temperature, enzymes in humans have optimum temperatures of around 40 degrees. Plants have enzymes with optimum temperature of about 25 degrees. As in temperature, enzymes have an optimum pH. The scale runs from 1 to Heroes and Villains - A little light reading.
Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many.
The problem tells you that gaseous nitrogen dioxide, "NO"_2 reacts with gaseous oxygen, "O"_2, and liquid water, "H"_2"O", to form aqueous nitric acid, "HNO"_3. The conditions for this reaction to take place are: a pressure of atmospheres (written as atm), a temperature of o C, and a catalyst which is a mixture of zinc oxide and chromium oxide (ZnO + CrO 3)..
Question (a) Potassium chlorate (KClO 3) on heating forms potassium chloride and srmvision.com a balanced equation. Write an unbalanced equation to represent each of the following reactions: (a) nitrogen and oxygen react to form nitrogen dioxide, (b) dinitrogen pentoxide reacts to form dinitrogen tetroxide and oxygen, (c) ozone reacts to form oxygen, (d) chlorine and sodium iodide react to form iodine and sodium chloride, and (c) magnesium and oxygen react .
[quote]the average temperature at the bottom of the atmosphere can be calculated to be +°C [ ] The average temperature at which the whole system Earth and its surrounding atmospheric gases are in radiative equilibrium with the incoming energy with the Sun can also be calculated using established thermodynamic theory.
THE PROCESS OF BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS. What we have done is to balance an unbalanced equation. An unbalanced equation is one in which the numbers of atoms on the left are not the same as the number of atoms on the right.